Survey says: A 1907-1908 Callot Soeurs Thought Experiment

There is always an ongoing debate as to weather fashion is art. Because it serves a function, many would argue that it does not fall into the art category. I disagree. I decided to do an experiment with a select group of fashion scholars who would be asked to look at a gown, be given minimal information about it, and asked to report what ‘art and social’ movements they saw represented.

The results were fascinating.

The Experiment:

I wanted to not only see if there would be consensus, but also to get a ‘snapshot’ of current thinking and assumptions among academics in the field. The dress I choose was this Callot Soeurs from 1907-1908, owned by Marjorie Merriweather Post, one of the American “Dollar Princesses” and at one time the richest Woman in America. The dress is held in the Hillwood Museum  collection.

The dress seemed to have a lot going on, and served my purpose well. I provided three images of the dress, the designer, the date: That was all. The survey was supplied to the Costume Society of America members-only listserve and an online academic Facebook group dedicated to the study of fashion history. These were people I considered my colleauges: knowledgable and honest. I wanted their own understanding of early 20th Century fashion and history to dictate their responses. I had my own thoughts and conclusions about the dress, but I was eager for a ‘group think.’

 

First, I asked:

And then I asked, “Why?” I provided no definition of terms, on purpose. I didn’t want my bias to interrupt their own understanding and perception. As responses began to come in, I added a place for people to include their names, as well as any comments they had.

The Response

The responses came in slowly over about a 24 hour period. 25 people responded, and some supplied comments in an extra ‘comment’ field to ask questions. The online debate started almost immediately, which was thrilling.

The response confirmed most of my assumptions about the style of the dress, but many new and interesting points were brought to my attention, via the “Why.” Some seemed far fetched, or stretching. Some seemed bang on. Here are a few of the arguments:

The lily-shape of the skirt and the curves of the bodice are emblematic of the “organic” shapes of Art Nouveau, and the colors and embroidery seem like classic Aesthetic dress.”

Some of the forms seem to reflect the curvilinear/flora forms of art nouveau. On the other hand there is a geometry to some of it that suggests the arts/crafts influence. The suggestion of hand work details around the top also seem to connect to arts/craft”

The feather-image embroidery, and some of the few geometric details are reminiscent of native american inspired motifs. The panel across the breast seems vaguely suggestive of a thunder-bird image.”

While this does look like it is embracing the more relaxed style of artistic/aesthetic dress and the more movement-friendly designs championed by dress reformers, I wonder usually associate those both with specific ideology and something that is hard to pin down without more information (who owned it, how it is constructed). I think the surface design does reflect art nouveau aesthetics, which seems to be more of a style and easily identifiable from just looking at images.”

It [Rococo revival] was a very prevalent trend. Look in Les Modes and other magazines at the time and you will see portraits from the 1770s and 80s reproduced, such as Antoinette, and Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire. Also not the hair and the hat size, and compact that with the 1780s.”

Artistic is a guess, but how else does one explain such over-the-top decoration. The light blue embroidery looks more like Rococo than Art Nouveau. URI has a collection of fabrics with some Rococo Revival designs.”

The wheat shelves are often used in banners and flags, coats of arms, etc. The wheat sheif is often held in the talons of an eagle or held in the arms of the goddess. The wheat can also symbolize the workers. That is the political. Some of the elements make reference to military dress. The breast plate, the stripes, the two embroidered pendants at the front of the skirt. The ribbonwork on the bodice.”

 

Click here for the full results of the survey (as a spreadsheet).

I’m eager to hear what others think of this little thought experiment, and am hopeful this post generate additional debate and conversation. What did you see in the dress? What did you agree with or disagree with? The responses were so varied, and people saw so many different elements within the dress, it seems it must be art.

Art is in the eye of the beholder, no?

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Knitting Water

Song of the Sea (2014)
Triple spiral visible on entrance stone at Newgrange, a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland (built during the Neolithic period, around 3200 BC, “making it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids.”)

My current obsession — at least knitting-wise — has to do with fabrics and textiles whose stitch patterns seem to suggest water (spirals and waves) and those that resemble scales (as in mermaids and other water creatures).

I’m in the early stages of researching this kind of stitch patterning in the history of knitting – and while my initial instinct was to assume Celtic and Nordic traditions, Japanese and Chinese influences are quickly (and clearly) showing their relevance.

My interest and inspiration derives from an odd confluence of things: The current exhibit at Turtle Bay Exploration Park, “Mythic Creatures” from the American Museum of Natural History (which includes Mermaids, and other sea creatures); the animated Irish film, “Song of the Sea” (which tells a story of Celtic Selkies or seal-people, and which includes beautiful examples of Celtic spirals); and a knitting tradition in my brother-in-laws family, which includes a stitch pattern resembling waves. So far, my knitting has only ventured into the depiction of waves/scales (by spirals may be next).

My reworked version of “Song of the Sea” pattern by Louise Zass-Bangham.
Early stages of a project reproducing a baby bootie pattern first published in 1907.

It’s a fascination that I may not be able to fully satisfy, though seeking out different variations of wave patterns (over time ) and in different ountries has proven interesting and eye-opening. Asian countries such as China and Japan also rely on water for their livelihood, and even more clear representations come in the form of modern shadow-puppets (in China), historic Kimono designs in Japan (notably the Seigaiha Symbol).

Do you have an example to share that I’ve not considered? Please share in the comments below!

Beijing, China, (2009), Oxhide, iron, cotton, Wood, dye, tung Oil (American Museum of Natural History) currently on view at Turtle Bay Exploration Park in Redding, CA
Tsuba with design of seigaiha and other small paterns, Japanese Edo period Late 18th–early 19th century, MFA Boston

 

 

 

 

 

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Fashion Revolution Week starts April 24 (via Fibershed)

Fibershed - Local Fiber, Local Dye, Local Labor

Dig in to the Fashion Revolution: together, we can create change by re-envisioning value chains from soil to soil. Whether you want to know who grows your clothes, or how to mend and repair them, or gain a better undertanding of the role of our working landscapes in drawing down carbon, read on for classes, events, opportunities, and inspiration from the Fibershed movement and community.


FashRev 2

Fashion Revolution

Fashion Revolution Week is a worldwide campaign to raise awareness and promote change in the fashion industry. Join Fibershed Producer members Sierra Reading and Amy Keefer along with local designers Mira Blackman and Jenny Fong to refashion your clothing with mending, natural dyeing, and embroidery, at Handcraft Studio School in El Cerrito.
You can also participate at home by sharing on social media and asking #whomademyclothes? We invite you to deepen the conversation in your Fibershed by including #Fibershed in your posts and considering #whogrewmyclothes.

Find a Fashion Revolution Week event in your community.
Fashion Revolution Re:Fashion Workshop on April 25th.
Attend Fashion Revolution’s Night Out San Francisco on April 26th.
or Fashion Revolution’s Night Out Oakland on April 27th.
Join Stanford’s Revolution by Design on April 23rd.


Within

WITHIN

Textile-based gallery and studio Ogaard hosts Within, a monthlong wellness study in collaboration with Amina Horozic, including weekly panels that bring together “local luminaries in the worlds of art, design, food, business, social justice, and community.” Fibershed founder and Director Rebecca Burgess will join Jennifer Gately of the Bolinas Museum, Heroine podcast founder Majo Molfino, and Indhira Rojas of Anxy Magazine, in conversation.

April 19th, 7:00 – 9:00 pm in Oakland CA: Click here for more information and to reserve a free ticket.


Carbon Farming Education Day

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Fibershed Materials Manager Krystle Moody and friends are designing a Carbon Farming Education Day at Stemple Creek Ranch—one of Fibershed’s Carbon Farm Plan partners—as a way to gather together to learn more about Carbon Farming while sharing a casual meal produced at Stemple Creek and Fortunate Farm. Proceeds for the event will support Krystle’s Climate Ride participation. Mark your calendars for August 13th for the event; tickets reserved ahead of the June Climate Ride fundraising goal will help advance this effort.

August 13th, 12:00 – 5:00 pm in Tomales, CA: Click here for tickets and information.


textile lab

Textile Lab

Join the Brooklyn Fashion + Design Accelerator for a look at cloth that was grown, milled, and made within the region. Designer and activist Laura Sansone founded Textile Lab to rebuild regional textile manufacturing and connect sustainable supply chains, and the Regional Cloth Project does just that with a focus on Hudson Valley fibers and stakeholders.

May 2nd, 4:00 – 6:00 pm in Brooklyn, NY: Click here for details and registration.


hands on hemp

Hemp_For_Liberty_Stills_D.Hedden-45-900px

This month, Kentucky Cloth Project collaborators will gather to provide information and hands-on experiences on hemp farming and fiber processing. We welcome you to explore your regional land-based fiber system through your hands and senses. All ages and skill levels are invited, and presentations and classes are free of charge, thanks to the good graces of the Lydia B. Stokes Foundation.

April 21st & 22nd in Kentucky: Click here to learn more about the event and to RSVP.


felt decoded

felt image

Felt Decoded explores wool as nature’s technology, and the ways in which felt connects us to our nomadic past and a sustainable future. The exhibition features selected wool samples from the Northern California Fibershed, and a display copy of the Wool & Fine Fiber Book. On April 27th, artist and curator Janice Arnold will share her inspirations, design process, exhibition highlights and insights.

April 27th, 6:30 – 8:30 PM at the Museum of Craft & Design in San Francisco: Click here for details.

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History of the Nightingale, 2 years in the making, now for sale online!

*

Earlier this year, I was thrilled to share that Piecework Magazine published my article on the history of the knitted nightingale (January/February 2017). I started by explaining that “The nineteenth-century wrap that became known as “The Nightingale,” a garment worn over the shoulders in bed, was the Victorian ancestor of the modern-day slanket (blanket with sleeves) or snuggie.

Florence Nightingale Jacket in "Harper's Bazar," September 5, 1885.
Florence Nightingale Jacket in “Harper’s Bazar,” September 5, 1885.

“Also called a bed jacket, dressing gown, shawl, wrap, cape, cloak, or sacque, the Nightingale was, over time, made from different fabrics.” The research was a fun romp through the early history of nursing and Florence Nightingale’s career, the Crimean war, wartime knitting, and yes, even Fashion History (an 1856 issue of Godey’s pictured a mantle called the “Nightingale” likely based on published images of Florence Nightingale).

 

Knitted Nightingale, Originally published in PieceWork January/February 2017.

My article also included a re-worked pattern for a Knitted Nightingale, which I’m happy to share is now for sale on the Interweave website. “This pattern is based on the Knitted Nightingale in Weldon’s Practical Knitter Sixteenth Series. With the exception of the choice of ribbon color, this knitted nightingale is true to the original Weldon’s pattern. The lapels on this Nightingale are fairly wide and are intended to imitate those seen in portraits of Florence Nightingale from the 1850s. They can easily be adjusted to your own preference. Extra length in the dolman-like sleeves allows for a generous range of movement and an added sense of coziness.” It was a long-time project that began July 16, 2015, and finished with a crochet edge on May 4, 2016.

*Florence Nightingale; Frances Parthenope, Lady Verney by William White watercolour, circa 1836 18 1/4 in. x 14 1/8 in. (462 mm x 358 mm) overall Given by Sir Harry Lushington Stephen, 3rd Bt, 1945 NPG 3246

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A Curved Needle Sewing Machine

The Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum exhibit, “Staff Picks” (Through April 30, 2017) is a grouping of objects from the permanent collection, chosen by staff members from all backgrounds and positions within the organization. It includes a wide variety of objects including fashion: a fur coat, a flapper dress, a Victorian hat, ski’s and boots, ballet slippers. Not surprisingly, my ‘pick’ was clothing related. Since so many staff members choose garments, I decided to try something a little more technology related: a curved needle sewing machine.

Curved Needle Sewing Machine. c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum)
Curved Needle Sewing Machine. c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum)
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Wheeler and Wilson Ad from “California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences,” San Francisco, February 28, 1862.

Thomas Saint is credited with inventing the first sewing machine in England in 1790. Some years later, it was refined by Barthelemy Thimonnier in France, who patented a new version used by the Army in France in 1831. In the 1830s, a New York-based Quaker named Walter Hunt, continued to refine the sewing machine. He began selling machines in New York around 1832-1834.

Many manufacturers and inventors began to innovate and patent various mechanisms and sewing machine parts after this time, including the now-well-known Singer.

Ad from "Pacific Rural Press", Volume 8, Number 3, 18 July 1874.
Ad from “Pacific Rural Press,” Volume 8, Number 3, 18 July 1874.

The example at Turtle Bay is by Wheeler and Wilson, a direct competitor to Singer. Wheeler and Wilson’s first patent was registered on November 12, 1850, and they began selling machines in 1851 in Connecticut, producing machines up until about 1909. The curved needle sewing machine was favored over the straight needle machine as some thought it worked better for light fabrics, and was popular for shirt-making.

By 1864 Wheeler-Wilson’s had “Bridgeport factory was producing 40,000 machines a year, almost double that of Singer. Wheeler and Wilson would continue to lead or  match Singer in the rapidly growing sewing machine market for another five years, until the Singer marketing steamroller ran over them.” (Buckman, 67-68). Singer eventually took over the company in in 1905.

In Northern California, Wheeler-Wilson sewing machines were commonly used. Pioneer family Wills at Old Shasta had a beautiful, highly decorated Number 8 from 1872 (now on view at Old Shasta Historic Park). Advertisements appeared in the Pacific Rural Press and California Farmer, common resources for innovative farm and agricultural products, during this era as well.

Detail of Curved Needle Sewing Machine, c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum) Photo by Julia Cronin.
Detail of Curved Needle Sewing Machine, c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum) Photo by Julia Cronin.

It is challenging to date this rusty machine in Turtle Bay’s Collection: no serial number or model number are present. A serial number would help determine the date, and the model number would tell us what it might have been used for.[i] For example, a model number 8 was intended for light family use, while a number 5 was intended for shirt-making and sewing sleeves.

The circular logo, however, provides clues. Logos were used on Wheeler & Wilson machines beginning in 1870. The address the label references is its sales center at 44 Union Square, in New York, suggesting a late 1870s to 1880s date. The base, a ‘slab’ style, was used between the 1860s and 1870s. Two illegible dates printed on the seal add to the mystery. These may be patent dates, international award dates, or office opening dates: 1867 or 1851 or 1862 (Londres[2]) and 1867 or 1887 (Paris).

Further Reading:

Buckman, Jack. Unraveling the Threads: The Life, Death and Resurrection of the Singer Company, America’s First Multi-National Corporation. Dog Ear Publishing: Indianapolis, IN. 2016.

Frederick Lewis Lewton. The Servant in the House: A Brief History of the Sewing Machine. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1930. Originally published in The Smithsonian Report for 1929: Publication 3056. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1930. pp. 559

Porter, William A. , Artist. Factories of the Wheeler & Wilson M’F’G. Co., Bridgeport, Conn. / Wils. Porter, del., 81. [1881] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2004662453/. (Accessed December 18, 2016.)
Notes:

[1] Model number http://www.sewmuse.co.uk/w&w.htm “No. 5 machine. Specially designed for shirt making or other work involving sewing sleeves.  It was available with double motion at extra cost and only one style of table was available in either Black Walnut or Mahogany.” “No. 4 machine. Referred to as ‘Large’ it was only available in a standard table of either Black Walnut or Mahogany.”

[2] Londres, the French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Filipino language name for London.

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Mermaids and Silkworms: A Review of Akihiko Izukura: The Way of Natural Textiles

2017-01-28 10.59.51-1wtmk

A recent vacation to Maui afforded me the opportunity to visit the Maui Arts & Cultural Center to see their current (and staggeringly beautiful) exhibit “Akihiko Izukura: The Way of Natural Textiles” (on view through March 19, 2017).

Stepping into the exhibit we were greeted with a large installation of hand-made silk orbs suspended in a large silk tube (“Eternal”). The desire to step inside the tubes and explore was strong, and we quickly learned that if we removed our shoes we could do exactly that.

2017-01-28 10.49.01wtmkIt was a magical experience to be in, and surrounded by silk made by tens of thousands of silkworms and hand-spun on an Edo period (1603-1868) spinning wheel by master craftsman Akihiko Izukura in only three months. Not surprisingly, “Eternal” was created to reflect the artists inspiration from the natural world, employing natural shapes, dyes, and materials. By contrast, the suspended panels of fabric surrounding the tube, 24 in all, took the artist three years. These panels show a variety of textures and patterns, but all created natural feeling permeable membranes.

2017-01-28 10.56.07wtmkThe reality of his work was informed by a small case containing the spinning wheel, dyes, silk-worm cocoons and other materials used with information on the craftsman’s history and process.

“Akihiko Izukura was born in 1942 to a family with a long history as Obi weavers in Nishijin, Kyoto, Japan. After formal studies at university and working in the family textile business he began his own personal journey into Ito-Shirabe (research on thread) learning complex ancient structures of weaving and braiding, mastering techniques of the Edo period that were nearly lost. His experience took him further into the ancient complicated techniques of ‘Ra’ (gossamer) and “Kara Kumi’ (braiding).”

2017-01-28 10.51.33wtmk“Years of research and hard work led him to his current philosophy of creating fabric or garments honoring sustainability and symbiosis with nature and the silkworm. His elaborated dialog within weaving, netting, braiding, entwining and dyeing led him to discover relationships between nature and man. his current work Senshoku-do includes eight methods: dyeing, reeling, spinning, plying, with four textile methods of weaving, braiding, netting and entwining.”

No wonder I was drawn to this work! Ancient techniques, research, and deep study of the history of thread certainly explained the amazing pieces on display. Quiet contemplative music filled the galleries, and as we left the larger objects behind we came to objects with more obvious purposes and more commercial appeal. Beautiful wall hangings, scarves, Kimono, obi, dresses, and jackets created using the same techniques (some of which were for sale).

2017-01-28 11.05.04wtmk2017-01-28 11.03.11wtmkTextures, colors, and woven shapes all seemed to reflect the experience we had been having in Maui – reminiscent of water, fish, seaweed and even mermaids.  Mariano Fortuny and Issey Miyake both felt referenced in the creation of the garments and textiles, especially the mermaid-like dresses that hung suspended between large swaths of fabric. A jacket in yellows and oranges at once reminded me of Fortuny, Miyake, and the way light filters through the ocean.

I left the exhibition feeling as if I’d been in an ethereal underwater world with shapes that reminded me of some of the more challenging knitted pieces I’d attempted to create myself. If you happen to be so lucky as to be in Maui – run don’t walk to see this marvelous show. (The exhibition catalog sold you in less than 3 weeks).

For an arm-chair tour, visit the gallery below:

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Fashion Encyclopedia wins at American Library Association

I’m thrilled to share that the Fashion Encyclopedia I helped create has just won a prestigious award at the American Library Association! I continually find myself grateful to all the wonderful contributors for their hard work and diligence!

“The most noteworthy reference titles published in 2016 have been named to the 2017 Outstanding References Sources List, an annual list selected by experts of the Collection Development and Evaluation Section (CODES) of the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA). The list was announced January 22, at ALA’s Midwinter Meeting in Atlanta.

The Outstanding Reference Sources Committee was established in 1958 to recommend the most outstanding reference publications published the previous year for small and medium-sized public and academic libraries. The selected titles are valuable reference resources and are highly recommended for inclusion in any library’s reference collections.”

Included on this list is Clothing and Fashion: American Fashion from Head to Toe.” by Jose Blanco F., Mary D. Doering, Patricia Hunt-Hurst, and Heather Vaughan Lee, editors. ABC-CLIO.

For a full list  of award winners please follow the link:
http://rusa.ala.org/update/2017/01/outstanding-reference-sources-announced/

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The Silhouette: From the 18th Century to the Present Day

Released in September, “The Silhouette: From the 18th Century to the Present Day” is a beautiful, full-color coffee table style work from French sociologist Georges Vigarello. Though not a fashion historian, Vigarello is an historian, and research director at the The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, a leading French institution for research and higher education in the social sciences.

Published in English for the first time, the book is a scholarly look at the cultural implications of the human form, as a “symbol of status, sexuality and the aspirational quest for physical and moral ‘perfection’.”

The shape of both mens’ and womens’ bodies are explored and illustrated through paintings, silhouette portraiture, sketches and line drawings, as well as caricatures and cartoons. What is unexpected is the true focus on the history of silhouettes as an art form, and how their creation changed over time. The book primarily focuses on the 18th century, with the invention of the word “silhouette,” and runs up through 2012 (though modern chapters are quiet brief). An interesting, though densely worded, coffee table book it’s likely something I will dip into slowly over time.

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New Book in the CSA Series: “Knock It Off,” a history of design piracy…

If you’re a member of the Costume Society of America, you know from their most recent (October) newsletter that the CSA Series has changed hands, and is now being published through Kent State University Press and managed by Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell. Prior to this, the CSA Series was published by Texas Tech University Press,  managed by Phyllis Spect. Phyllis is still managing the tail end of that relationship, and to that end a new book in the series from Texas Tech has been released:

Knock It Off: A History of Design Piracy in the US Women’s Ready-to-Wear Apparel Industry by Sara B. Marcketti and Jean L. Parsons is a 240 page volume of extensive research, with photos to match, exploring a fascinating and incredibly relevant subject.

From the back cover:

The authors analyze legal and apparel industry documents; governmental reports; and their own primary research conducted in museums, archives, and special collections to shed light on arguments both for and against design piracy.”

Much of the book also appears to focus on the Fashion Originators Guild of America (FOGA), which attempts to protect original design. I’ve waded into a few of its pages, and hope to have a chance to learn more from these esteemed authors. Add it to your reading list!

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Best Laid Plans: What I hope to read this summer (continuing series)

In my continuing series of recently released books (that I want to read, or have started to read), I present this weeks book:Dress History: New Directions in Theory and Practice, Edited by Charlotte Nicklas and Annabella Pollen [ Bloomsbury, Oct 2015]. For more in this series, see previously reviewed books here.

If one were to judge a book by it’s cover, after reading blurbs by the likes of Nancy Deihl (NYU); Clare Sauro (Drexel); Jean L Druesedow (Kent State); and Abby Lillethun (Montclair State), one might reasonably expect to see some US-based scholarship here. Unfortunately, the series of essays include only scholarship from the UK and Canada (though the dust jacket says “international case studies.”)

That said, it does look to be a fascinating collection of essays by a good mix of early-career and established scholars. With an introduction by THE Lou Taylor (Establishing Dress History, and The Study of Dress History), it’s got some impressive clout.

Topics include gloves in the 18th Century; 19th Century Afro-Brazilian dress; African dress in the V & A; Aesthetic dress in 19th Century Britain; gender identity and Norman Hartnell; and even sari revival in Tamilnadu, India (among many others). Collections explored include the V&A; Narryna Heritage Museum; Isabella Stewart Gardener Museum; Royal Ontario Museum; and The Hartnell-Mitchison Archive.

It really does appear to be an outstanding contribution to the field, and aims to move Taylor’s work forward. I’m looking forward to continuing my reading!*

 

*I’m also looking forward to a book of similar impact that includes US-based collections and scholars.

 

 

 

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