Fashion Revolution Week starts April 24 (via Fibershed)

Fibershed - Local Fiber, Local Dye, Local Labor

Dig in to the Fashion Revolution: together, we can create change by re-envisioning value chains from soil to soil. Whether you want to know who grows your clothes, or how to mend and repair them, or gain a better undertanding of the role of our working landscapes in drawing down carbon, read on for classes, events, opportunities, and inspiration from the Fibershed movement and community.


FashRev 2

Fashion Revolution

Fashion Revolution Week is a worldwide campaign to raise awareness and promote change in the fashion industry. Join Fibershed Producer members Sierra Reading and Amy Keefer along with local designers Mira Blackman and Jenny Fong to refashion your clothing with mending, natural dyeing, and embroidery, at Handcraft Studio School in El Cerrito.
You can also participate at home by sharing on social media and asking #whomademyclothes? We invite you to deepen the conversation in your Fibershed by including #Fibershed in your posts and considering #whogrewmyclothes.

Find a Fashion Revolution Week event in your community.
Fashion Revolution Re:Fashion Workshop on April 25th.
Attend Fashion Revolution’s Night Out San Francisco on April 26th.
or Fashion Revolution’s Night Out Oakland on April 27th.
Join Stanford’s Revolution by Design on April 23rd.


Within

WITHIN

Textile-based gallery and studio Ogaard hosts Within, a monthlong wellness study in collaboration with Amina Horozic, including weekly panels that bring together “local luminaries in the worlds of art, design, food, business, social justice, and community.” Fibershed founder and Director Rebecca Burgess will join Jennifer Gately of the Bolinas Museum, Heroine podcast founder Majo Molfino, and Indhira Rojas of Anxy Magazine, in conversation.

April 19th, 7:00 – 9:00 pm in Oakland CA: Click here for more information and to reserve a free ticket.


Carbon Farming Education Day

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Fibershed Materials Manager Krystle Moody and friends are designing a Carbon Farming Education Day at Stemple Creek Ranch—one of Fibershed’s Carbon Farm Plan partners—as a way to gather together to learn more about Carbon Farming while sharing a casual meal produced at Stemple Creek and Fortunate Farm. Proceeds for the event will support Krystle’s Climate Ride participation. Mark your calendars for August 13th for the event; tickets reserved ahead of the June Climate Ride fundraising goal will help advance this effort.

August 13th, 12:00 – 5:00 pm in Tomales, CA: Click here for tickets and information.


textile lab

Textile Lab

Join the Brooklyn Fashion + Design Accelerator for a look at cloth that was grown, milled, and made within the region. Designer and activist Laura Sansone founded Textile Lab to rebuild regional textile manufacturing and connect sustainable supply chains, and the Regional Cloth Project does just that with a focus on Hudson Valley fibers and stakeholders.

May 2nd, 4:00 – 6:00 pm in Brooklyn, NY: Click here for details and registration.


hands on hemp

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This month, Kentucky Cloth Project collaborators will gather to provide information and hands-on experiences on hemp farming and fiber processing. We welcome you to explore your regional land-based fiber system through your hands and senses. All ages and skill levels are invited, and presentations and classes are free of charge, thanks to the good graces of the Lydia B. Stokes Foundation.

April 21st & 22nd in Kentucky: Click here to learn more about the event and to RSVP.


felt decoded

felt image

Felt Decoded explores wool as nature’s technology, and the ways in which felt connects us to our nomadic past and a sustainable future. The exhibition features selected wool samples from the Northern California Fibershed, and a display copy of the Wool & Fine Fiber Book. On April 27th, artist and curator Janice Arnold will share her inspirations, design process, exhibition highlights and insights.

April 27th, 6:30 – 8:30 PM at the Museum of Craft & Design in San Francisco: Click here for details.

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A Curved Needle Sewing Machine

The Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum exhibit, “Staff Picks” (Through April 30, 2017) is a grouping of objects from the permanent collection, chosen by staff members from all backgrounds and positions within the organization. It includes a wide variety of objects including fashion: a fur coat, a flapper dress, a Victorian hat, ski’s and boots, ballet slippers. Not surprisingly, my ‘pick’ was clothing related. Since so many staff members choose garments, I decided to try something a little more technology related: a curved needle sewing machine.

Curved Needle Sewing Machine. c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum)
Curved Needle Sewing Machine. c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum)
Screen Shot 2017-02-08 at 11.01.10 AM
Wheeler and Wilson Ad from “California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences,” San Francisco, February 28, 1862.

Thomas Saint is credited with inventing the first sewing machine in England in 1790. Some years later, it was refined by Barthelemy Thimonnier in France, who patented a new version used by the Army in France in 1831. In the 1830s, a New York-based Quaker named Walter Hunt, continued to refine the sewing machine. He began selling machines in New York around 1832-1834.

Many manufacturers and inventors began to innovate and patent various mechanisms and sewing machine parts after this time, including the now-well-known Singer.

Ad from "Pacific Rural Press", Volume 8, Number 3, 18 July 1874.
Ad from “Pacific Rural Press,” Volume 8, Number 3, 18 July 1874.

The example at Turtle Bay is by Wheeler and Wilson, a direct competitor to Singer. Wheeler and Wilson’s first patent was registered on November 12, 1850, and they began selling machines in 1851 in Connecticut, producing machines up until about 1909. The curved needle sewing machine was favored over the straight needle machine as some thought it worked better for light fabrics, and was popular for shirt-making.

By 1864 Wheeler-Wilson’s had “Bridgeport factory was producing 40,000 machines a year, almost double that of Singer. Wheeler and Wilson would continue to lead or  match Singer in the rapidly growing sewing machine market for another five years, until the Singer marketing steamroller ran over them.” (Buckman, 67-68). Singer eventually took over the company in in 1905.

In Northern California, Wheeler-Wilson sewing machines were commonly used. Pioneer family Wills at Old Shasta had a beautiful, highly decorated Number 8 from 1872 (now on view at Old Shasta Historic Park). Advertisements appeared in the Pacific Rural Press and California Farmer, common resources for innovative farm and agricultural products, during this era as well.

Detail of Curved Needle Sewing Machine, c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum) Photo by Julia Cronin.
Detail of Curved Needle Sewing Machine, c1870s-1880s, Wheeler and Wilson Mfg, New York. 1964.4.2, Donor Gwyn Stalcup (Turtle Bay Exploration Park & Museum) Photo by Julia Cronin.

It is challenging to date this rusty machine in Turtle Bay’s Collection: no serial number or model number are present. A serial number would help determine the date, and the model number would tell us what it might have been used for.[i] For example, a model number 8 was intended for light family use, while a number 5 was intended for shirt-making and sewing sleeves.

The circular logo, however, provides clues. Logos were used on Wheeler & Wilson machines beginning in 1870. The address the label references is its sales center at 44 Union Square, in New York, suggesting a late 1870s to 1880s date. The base, a ‘slab’ style, was used between the 1860s and 1870s. Two illegible dates printed on the seal add to the mystery. These may be patent dates, international award dates, or office opening dates: 1867 or 1851 or 1862 (Londres[2]) and 1867 or 1887 (Paris).

Further Reading:

Buckman, Jack. Unraveling the Threads: The Life, Death and Resurrection of the Singer Company, America’s First Multi-National Corporation. Dog Ear Publishing: Indianapolis, IN. 2016.

Frederick Lewis Lewton. The Servant in the House: A Brief History of the Sewing Machine. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1930. Originally published in The Smithsonian Report for 1929: Publication 3056. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1930. pp. 559

Porter, William A. , Artist. Factories of the Wheeler & Wilson M’F’G. Co., Bridgeport, Conn. / Wils. Porter, del., 81. [1881] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2004662453/. (Accessed December 18, 2016.)
Notes:

[1] Model number http://www.sewmuse.co.uk/w&w.htm “No. 5 machine. Specially designed for shirt making or other work involving sewing sleeves.  It was available with double motion at extra cost and only one style of table was available in either Black Walnut or Mahogany.” “No. 4 machine. Referred to as ‘Large’ it was only available in a standard table of either Black Walnut or Mahogany.”

[2] Londres, the French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Filipino language name for London.

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Mermaids and Silkworms: A Review of Akihiko Izukura: The Way of Natural Textiles

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A recent vacation to Maui afforded me the opportunity to visit the Maui Arts & Cultural Center to see their current (and staggeringly beautiful) exhibit “Akihiko Izukura: The Way of Natural Textiles” (on view through March 19, 2017).

Stepping into the exhibit we were greeted with a large installation of hand-made silk orbs suspended in a large silk tube (“Eternal”). The desire to step inside the tubes and explore was strong, and we quickly learned that if we removed our shoes we could do exactly that.

2017-01-28 10.49.01wtmkIt was a magical experience to be in, and surrounded by silk made by tens of thousands of silkworms and hand-spun on an Edo period (1603-1868) spinning wheel by master craftsman Akihiko Izukura in only three months. Not surprisingly, “Eternal” was created to reflect the artists inspiration from the natural world, employing natural shapes, dyes, and materials. By contrast, the suspended panels of fabric surrounding the tube, 24 in all, took the artist three years. These panels show a variety of textures and patterns, but all created natural feeling permeable membranes.

2017-01-28 10.56.07wtmkThe reality of his work was informed by a small case containing the spinning wheel, dyes, silk-worm cocoons and other materials used with information on the craftsman’s history and process.

“Akihiko Izukura was born in 1942 to a family with a long history as Obi weavers in Nishijin, Kyoto, Japan. After formal studies at university and working in the family textile business he began his own personal journey into Ito-Shirabe (research on thread) learning complex ancient structures of weaving and braiding, mastering techniques of the Edo period that were nearly lost. His experience took him further into the ancient complicated techniques of ‘Ra’ (gossamer) and “Kara Kumi’ (braiding).”

2017-01-28 10.51.33wtmk“Years of research and hard work led him to his current philosophy of creating fabric or garments honoring sustainability and symbiosis with nature and the silkworm. His elaborated dialog within weaving, netting, braiding, entwining and dyeing led him to discover relationships between nature and man. his current work Senshoku-do includes eight methods: dyeing, reeling, spinning, plying, with four textile methods of weaving, braiding, netting and entwining.”

No wonder I was drawn to this work! Ancient techniques, research, and deep study of the history of thread certainly explained the amazing pieces on display. Quiet contemplative music filled the galleries, and as we left the larger objects behind we came to objects with more obvious purposes and more commercial appeal. Beautiful wall hangings, scarves, Kimono, obi, dresses, and jackets created using the same techniques (some of which were for sale).

2017-01-28 11.05.04wtmk2017-01-28 11.03.11wtmkTextures, colors, and woven shapes all seemed to reflect the experience we had been having in Maui – reminiscent of water, fish, seaweed and even mermaids.  Mariano Fortuny and Issey Miyake both felt referenced in the creation of the garments and textiles, especially the mermaid-like dresses that hung suspended between large swaths of fabric. A jacket in yellows and oranges at once reminded me of Fortuny, Miyake, and the way light filters through the ocean.

I left the exhibition feeling as if I’d been in an ethereal underwater world with shapes that reminded me of some of the more challenging knitted pieces I’d attempted to create myself. If you happen to be so lucky as to be in Maui – run don’t walk to see this marvelous show. (The exhibition catalog sold you in less than 3 weeks).

For an arm-chair tour, visit the gallery below:

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Exhibition Review: Proust’s Muse

House of Worth, “Lily Dress,” evening gown, 1896; from the collection of the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT.
House of Worth, “Lily Dress,” evening gown, 1896; from the collection of the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT.

Proust’s Muse:

The Countess Greffulhe

Museum @ FIT

Closes January 7, 2017

By Nadine Stewart

The term “Fashion Icon” gets flung around in our times. Celebrities whose images flood social media are deemed “iconic” even though their style is derivative, achieved only through the help of a well-paid stylist. We are now in a time of transition. Our national fashion icon, Michelle Obama, is stepping out of the spotlight and the nation is wondering who can replace her.

With those thoughts in mind, a visit to Proust’s Muse: The Countess Greffulhe  reminds us what a real fashion leader can be. Elisabeth de Caraman-Chimay was indeed a beauty with auburn hair a fine figure, and the money to engage the best couturiers to design for her, but what made her memorable was her personal style. She was determined that her gowns would be distinctive, so participated in the creation of her dresses to insure her dress would be memorable. It was said that she would rather appear “bizarre,” instead of “banal.” Proust wrote, “Each of her dresses seemed like. . .. the projection of a particular aspect of her soul.” She inspired this intensely sensitive author, who based several of his characters on her persona. For both of them fashion “was a mark of individuality, an emotional language, and a form of art.”

The first galley of this exhibit, originally on display at the Palais Galliera, Musee de la Mode, establishes who the Countess was through photographs and rare film clips. There are pictures of the Countess herself posing for the photographer Paul Nader and of Proust, but we are also reminded that she was a leader of her time in more than fashion. There are pictures of Serge Diaghilev of the Ballet Russes, the composer Gabriel Fauré, the scientist Marie Curie, and, the most controversial of all, Captain Alfred Dreyfuss, focus of an anti-Semitic political scandal that roiled France for more than a decade. The Countess supported him too—a stand that placed her against many leaders of French society.

Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.
Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.

De Greffulhe’s unique taste over the decades of the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth is on view in the main gallery. Elisabeth married Count Henry Greffulhe on 1878 when she was 18. Even then her taste was elegant, as can be seen by an exquisite black lace bodice from 1884-5. It was worn over a colored dress, so the intricacy of the lace and jet bead trim would stand out. Color was obviously important to the new bride as can be seen by a pink silk satin day dress embroidered with brown floral motifs from the late 1880s and an 1894 garden party dress from Worth, a confection of pink silk crepe Mousseline over silk satin printed with orchids. Next to this gown is a pleated silk taffeta dressing gown in another favorite, green, a color that highlighted her auburn hair.

House of Worth, tea gown, circa 1897; from the collection of the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT.
House of Worth, tea gown, circa 1897; from the collection of the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT.

This was a demanding customer. She insisted designers showed her their best and then, often ordered them to make something different. The result could be the green tea gown with a large navy cut velvet print reminiscent of the pomegranate figured fabrics of the Renaissance.

This was also a figure who managed to lead fashion through changing times as can be seen on the next platform which shows the new silhouette of the early twentieth century. One standout is a long column of a gown covered with the metallic embroidery inspired by the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamen.

The Countess loved “the gaze of others.” Nowhere else in the exhibit is this more evident than an evening cloak made from a Russian court robe and the dress she wore to her daughter’s wedding. The cloak or khalat from present-day Uzbekistan, encrusted with gold embroidery, was presented to the Countess by Czar Nicholas II. Jean-Philippe Worth converted the robe to a long opera cloak which she wore to great acclaim at the state visit by the Russians.

Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.
Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.

There has probably never been a mother-of-the-bride dress like 1904’s “Byzantine Gown” of bronze colored silk taffeta covered with silver and gold embroidered and sparking with sequins. At the bottom is a wide band of fur, originally sable. We are told the Countess timed her entrance perfectly, pausing just long enough at the top of the church stairs to give the crowd a full view. Apparently, the strategy worked. The press barely mentioned the bride, lavishing praise on the mother’s dress!

nstallation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.
Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.

The 1930s were a period when couturieres flourished in Paris. Designers like louiseboulanger, Jeanne Lanvin, and Maggy Rouff emerged and contributed to the Countess’ wardrobe. By this time, she was older, but still exercised her great sense of what in the new decade would complement her. By this time, the Countess had abandoned pink, feeling it was too youthful. Most of the garments from the 1930s are black, including an amusing coat with a Surrealist influence. The fabric looks like black bricks, trimmed with a lush black fur pockets and cuffs.

Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.
Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT.  Photograph :copyright: 2016 The Museum at FIT.

But, the Countess still loved green. This love shows up in flowing robes inspired by the Ballet Russes covered with Orientalist embroidery.

The gowns are stunning, but the accessories wall shows the Countess’ attention to detail. For a sense of mystery, there are fans replete with delicate paintings, lace, and sticks of mother-of-pearl and stockings embroidered with silk flowers. A proper lady in society had to have gloves. The Countess inherited a long pair from the Age of Napoleon, delicate ivory trimmed with gold sequins, but she had the latest as well. Her black satin evening gloves from the 1930s came from Caroline Reboux. They have remarkable puffs that extend from the wrist to the elbows. She was never without a hat, a list for a trip specifically laid out the need for at least 6 hats in different colors. Most moving, is a small hat from the 1940s when France was at war. It is an “Occupation Hat,” made of braided cellophane straw and ribbon worn when her townhouse had no heat and she lived in her servants’ quarters. Style under adversity.

Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT. An exhibition developed by the Palais Galliera, Musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris. Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT.
Installation view of the exhibition Proust’s Muse, The Countess Greffulhe at The Museum at FIT.  Photograph © 2016 The Museum at FIT. More images available here.

The most famous, enduring example of Countess’ style is Worth’s “Lily Dress,” which occupies center stage. Black velvet covered with appliques of ivory silk lilies and leaves that run the length of the dress and train, it is a gown whose pearls and sequins would sparkle in the lights of a Belle Époque ball. It is cut with a long princess line which flattered the Countess’ figure. A wide ivory silk berth collar would have drawn attention to her face. The Countess clearly knew the power of this dress. She was photographed twice in it by Paul Nader in front of a full-length mirror. She was clearly aware of her uncle, the dandy Robert de Montesquiou’s words— “A photography is a mirror that remembers.”

In one of his novels, her admirer Proust wrote the words that sum up this unique woman. A character based on the countess says, “I shall know I’ve lost my beauty when people stop turning to stare at me.” Another character answers, “Never fear, my dear, so long as you dress as you do, people will always turn and stare.” Sixty-four years after her death in 1952, we’re still staring in awe.


MENadine Stewart, Exhibition Reviews

Stewart is currently an adjunct professor of Fashion Studies at Montclair State University. She has a Master’s degree in Fashion and Textile Studies from the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) and a BA in English Literature from Dickinson College. She has a longtime interest in millinery and milliners and is currently working on a social history of American milliners. She lives in New York City, right behind FIT! More posts by Nadine Stewart »

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MANUS X MACHINE Review by Nadine Stewart

By Nadine Stewart

Karl Lagerfeld (French, born Hamburg, 1938) for House of Chanel (French, founded 1913) Wedding ensemble (back view), autumn/winter 2014–15 haute couture Courtesy of CHANEL Patrimoine Collection Photo © Nicholas Alan Cope

The first thing one sees at the end of the pristine white entrance to Manus x Machina (MET, Costume Institute, New York through August 14th) is the extremely long train of a Chanel wedding gown. It’s a stunner and sets the tone for the entire exhibit which explores the intersection between hand and machine work in fashion through time. In the case of this piece, the gown was hand formed of a new material called “scuba knit,” sewn by machine, and finished by hand. The work on the train, a combination of silk and scuba knit, was even more intensive. The gilded design was digitally transferred from a sketch by the designer, Karl Lagerfeld. Rhinestones were added via a heat press. Gold pigment was added by hand. Then it was embroidered with pearls and gems, again by hand. This gown is our introduction to the intricacies of design today.

Though the exhibit is full of gorgeous gowns like this one, the exhibit is not about the clothes. Curator Andrew Bolton in his first show as head of the Costume Institute, makes it clear that the exhibit is about the techniques used to produce fashion—work done by hand (manus) and work done by machine (machina). Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, these techniques have been viewed as opposed to each other with handwork viewed as finer work connected with haute couture while machine work is associated with prêt-a-porter. Bolton wants this exhibit to change that view. He feels the increase in new technology has made the distinction meaningless. As Bolton puts it,“Through the marriage of the handmade and the machine-made, a new aesthetic is emerging—one of exacting beauty and unfettered imaginings.” The 170 garments on view in the Robert Lehman Galleries certainly prove his point. The definition of embroidery is “needlework that adorns woven or knitted textiles,” which is a good technical description, but does not do justice to the the directions centuries of artisians have developed these stitches that really can be placed in three categories–looped, flat, and knotted. A trapeze dress from 1958 by Yves St Laurent that gains its shape from 5 layers of machine sewn tulle hand embroidered with crystals is set alone. Across from it are displayed a gown by Dior from the 1950s that shimmers with silver petals of tulle. On the same platform is the work of contemporary designer Iris Herpen which used iron fillings and polyester resin to build up a sculpted surface on the huge sleeves of a short evening dress. For many of us whose experience with embroidered garments might only include a peasant blouse, the sight of these pieces is a revelation.

Yves Saint Laurent (French, 1936–2008) Evening dress, autumn/winter 1969–70 haute couture French Silk, bird-of-paradise feathers The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Baron Philippe de Rothschild, 1983 (1983.619.1a, b) Photo © Nicholas Alan Cope

Featherwork is a another skill often overlooked by the public since the conservation laws of the early 20th Century restricted the hunting of birds that adorned the huge hats of the Edwardian era. But featherwork is still an important component in the creation of fashion. The plumes have to be washed, dried, sorted, and, possibly, dyed. Then, they must be shaped and grouped to build the plume up. Often, the feathers will be curled and shaped. This work can produce garments that have an otherworldly quality. Technology has made it possible for modern designers to use “feathers” of manmade materials like silicone. One dress in this section was especially interesting to me. It is a YSL dress from 1969-70 covered in bird of paradise feathers, a now extinct bird who was hunted to death for fashion. One can certainly see how the bird’s beautiful light gold feathers made it so desirable.

Flowers are another old embellishment. The molds that shape them are stamped by machine now. The possibilities are endless from the delicacy of a Lanvin robe de style to bold contemporary garments with layers of built-up petals.

The upstairs galleries also include a section on draping of toiles, which also gives a brief history of the development of the mannequin. Display of half toiles and full ones give an insight into the designing process.

Issey Miyake (Japanese, born 1938) for Miyake Design Studio (Japanese, founded 1970) “Flying Saucer” dress, spring/summer 1994 Courtesy of The Miyake Issey Foundation Photo © Nicholas Alan Cope

Downstairs there are sections on lacework, leatherwork, tailoring and, my favorite, pleating. I thought it was a brilliant stroke to display the pieces by Issey Miyake spread out flat one side to the gallery and mounted on a mannequins on the other side. I could really see how the body shaped the pieces and how the pleating formed an outer shell around the body. These garments were designed with the aid of a computer, another example of the increasing combination of the machine.

This exhibit was a pleasure to walk through, which made it quite different from year’s China: Through the Looking Glass, which was set in the Asian galleries. It was a sprawling exhibit with the garments mounted amid the artwork. There was many, many themes as befit the huge topic—blue and white china, Mao, court robes, Anna May Wong—and that is only a few! It was gorgeous, but could be exhausting to view. This exhibit was more pristine. The Lehman galleries were covered in while scrim which made the garment stand out like jewels. The galleries have plenty of space too, so I didn’t feel crowded. There’s plenty of room to walk around and enjoy. When I first saw the exhibit, I wished there were videos that showed how the work was done.

Then, I remembered how the visitors tend to crowded around the videos and clog up the show. Videos that were in this exhibit were small and spare. This presentation made it possible to focus on the clothes. It was easy to see the work itself. One could contemplate the words of Andrew Bolton, “Through the marriage of the handmade and the machine-made, a new aesthetic is emerging—one of exacting beauty and unfettered imaginings.” It’s exciting to dream about what’s next.


MENadine Stewart, Exhibition Reviews

Stewart is currently an adjunct professor of Fashion Studies at Montclair State University. She has a Master’s degree in Fashion and Textile Studies from the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) and a BA in English Literature from Dickinson College. She has a longtime interest in millinery and milliners and is currently working on a social history of American milliners. She lives in New York City, right behind FIT! More posts by Nadine Stewart »

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2016 CSA National Symposium Recap

Full-Cleveland-abstracts-2016-for-Avectra-COVER

By Ariele Elia

Kristen Miller Zohn and Tina Bates in their Full Cleveland and 1970s
Kristen Miller Zohn and Tina Bates in their Full Cleveland and 1970s

The Costume Society of America recently hosted its 42nd Annual Meeting and National Symposium, titled The Full Cleveland: Dress as Communication, Self-Expression, and Identity, in Cleveland, Ohio. The symposium opened with a keynote address by Teri Agins, author of Hijacking the Runway: How Celebrities Are Stealing the Spotlight from Fashion Designers. Agins discussed the ongoing phenomenon of celebrities creating their own clothing lines. She entertained the audience with celebrity stories she collected while writing for The Wall Street Journal. Her talk provided an insider’s view into who actually designs these lines, who is the most successful, who started the trend, and why it is leading today’s clothing industry.  She discussed lines started by Donald Trump, Jennifer Lopez, Carlo Santana, P. Diddy and of course the Kardashians. At the opening reception attendees including Executive Director, Kristen Miller Zohn and Tina Bates, author of A Cultural History of Uniforms, dressed up in their best rendition of the Full Cleveland (a 1970s ensemble complete with a white belt and matching white shoes).

Adidas superstar sneakers worn by hip-hop artists and b-boys
Adidas superstar sneakers worn by hip-hop artists and b-boys

A variety of academic papers were presented on topics such as costume design, ethnographic clothing, material culture analysis, and teaching costume studies. Below are a few selected highlights. Lauren Boumaroun, Ph.D candidate in UCLA’s Cinema and Media Studies program presented on the wardrobe of Saul Goodman in the television series Better Call Saul. Boumaroun discussed how the character built a visual identity through referencing the wardrobes and persona of other onscreen stars such as Matlock. Elizabeth Semmelhack, Senior Curator at The Bata Shoe Museum and curator of Out of The Box: The Rise of Sneaker Culture spoke about the origins of the sneakers and their connection to hip hop and menswear. She highlighted famous styles such as Chuck Taylor’s All Stars, Puma’s Clyde, Nike’s Air Force One and Air Jordans, along with the various designer collaborations. Winner of the Stella Blum Student Research Grant, Matthew Lee Hale, Ph.D candidate at Indiana University presented his ongoing research Cosplay: Creating the Body Fantastic. Hale documented the process of creating the elaborate costume for Cosplay conventions such as San Diego’s Comic Con. Ashley Garrin, Ph.D from Iowa State University discussed a case study of African American women’s hair as a symbol of individual and collective identity during the civil rights movement. Her presentation was divided into three areas: boundaries, consciences, and negotiation, which create a collective identity construct. The Costume Institute at the MET was the winner of the Richard Martin Exhibition Award for Charles James: Beyond Fashion. Jan Reeder provided a behind-the-scene look of how the exhibition was put together. Reeder explained the process of having the conservation team creating mock ups of pattern pieces for the animation team. The finished animation allowed the viewer to see the complex construction of James’ dresses. These animations will be available online in the next few months.

Lady Gaga's meat dress designed by Franc Fernandez
Lady Gaga’s meat dress designed by Franc Fernandez

Additional symposium tours included a behind the scenes tour of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum vault. The collections manager unveiled some of the most covetable items in their collection and explained their storage methods. One of their most interesting pieces was Lady Gaga’s famed meat dress. This piece is on display in their new exhibition Louder Than Words, which examines the political messages disseminated through music. Gaga wore this dress to make the statement about the US military’s “don’t ask don’t tell” policy, stating, “If we don’t stand up for what we believe…we’re going to have as much rights as the meat on our bones.” Prior to entering into the museum collection, a taxidermist was consulted on how to conserve the dress made of Argentinian red meat. The collections manager explained that the process was similar to dehydrating beef to create jerky. An unforeseen complication was maintaining the structure of the dress. During the dehydration process the dress lost its form. A structure was later put underneath to provide some stability to the dress. To create the original red color of the dress, it was later dyed to mimic the deep red color of the raw meat. Some argue that the conservation has its ethical issues. To learn more about the process visit this article.

Peter Criss of KISS boots, Collection of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Peter Criss of KISS boots, Collection of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Snake skin shoes worn by Keith Moon, collection of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Snake skin shoes worn by Keith Moon, collection of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

Other highlights of the visit were Flavor Flav’s oversized clock he wore around his neck; Janet Jackets leather jacket worn at Super Bowl XXXVIII during her infamous wardrobe malfunction; a pair of teal snakeskin shoes worn by Keith Moon from the WHO, and a pair of green rhinestone platform boots worn by Peter Criss of KISS. The glass pyramid building is a masterpiece designed by I.M. Pei and has memorabilia including cars and hot dogs suspended from the ceiling. The multiple levels of the museum hold a gems ranging from John Lennon’s acoustic guitar to costumes worn by Elvis, The Beatles, KISS, Funkadelic, and Beyoncé to name a few.

While venturing outside the hotel I stumbled across an Art Deco facade with “The Arcade” written in gold. Upon entered I was blown away by the bright light beaming in from the curved glass ceiling. I had been transported back to the Victorian era and in awe of the five stories of shop windows. The Arcade was the first indoor shopping mall in American built in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller. In 2011 the Hyatt had undertaken the task of restoring The Arcade and converting it into a hotel, shopping, and dining area. Another incredible example of restoration downtown is the Cleveland Trust Rotunda. Originally designed as a bank in 1908 by George Brown Post, (architect of the New York Stock Exchange), it has been transformed into Heinen’s, the most luxurious grocery store and wine bar. Many CSA attendees finished off the conference with a glass of wine under the blue and green stained glass Rotunda.

For more photos, please visit the gallery:


Ariele Head Shot _webAriele Elia, assistant curator of Costume and Textiles, Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT); she has curated or co-curated a number of exhibits including: “Faking It: Originals, Copies, and Counterfeits,” “Fashion and Technology,” and “Global Fashion Capitals.” Currently she is co-curated “Black Fashion Designers,” set to open December 2017. Elia has lectured on at Oxford, NYU, Eyebeam, and the University of Rhode Island. Her essay, “The Wardrobe of the Modern Athlete: Activewear in the 1930s” was published in the book Elegance in an Age of Crisis: Fashion of the 1930s. Elia is currently writing an essay about the influence of deep sea on fashion for the catalog Expedition: Fashion from the Extreme. She holds an M.A. in Fashion and Textile: History, Theory, and Museum Practices from FIT, as well as a B.A. in Art History from Saint Mary’s College of California. More posts by the Author »

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The Gothic to Goth Exhibition at the Wadsworth Atheneum, a guest review

 

by Nadine Stewart

What better place to learn about Romanticism than the Wadsworth Atheneum? Founded in 1842 and named for Daniel Wadsworth, the museum is a wonderful example of Gothic Revival architecture. Its turreted towers and narrow windows give the building the effect of a medieval castle. The architecture is a far cry for the ideal of the previous generation—the Grecian or Roman neoclassic temple.

The Wadsworth Atheneum—a monument to Gothic spirit in architecture.

Defining Romanticism is not easy. Yet, the strains of Romanticism still resonate today. Gothic to Goth:Romantic Era Fashion & Its Legacy (through July 10, 2016) examines how dramatically the different themes affected art and dress from approximately 1815 to the Civil War.

Romanticism was a reaction to the Age of Enlightenment. Instead of glorifying reason, its proponents gloried in nature, explored the darkest depths of the imagination, and harked back to the medieval period, considered the most sublime period in history by critics like John Ruskin and Augustus Pugin. The novels of Sir Walter Scott gave readers dramas of knights and fair maidens set in sweeping landscapes. Ironically, the Industrial Revolution was actually changing the countryside of both Great Britain and the United States. The coal fired industries and cities crowded with a new poor working class were the depressing reality.

The Romantics sought to dress like the figures from the past mixing elements from different periods of history. In the first section we see a 1820s pelisse with a jagged edging on that looks like the architectural edging of a castle. This is combined with slashing inspired by the Renaissance on the collar, a ruff around the neck and sleeves that recall paintings from the Tudor court. The gown is displayed next to an 1852 painting which shows young couple enjoying the sight of an Irish castle glowing in the early evening light. It is this combination of art and cultural items of the period with its dress that make this exhibit so memorable.

A view of the Historicism Section of the exhibit, Note the stove and the dress next to it with similar design motifs! (via Wadsworth Atheneum’s Twitter account)

Curator Lynne Zacek Bassett has chosen five themes to tell the story of the period—historicism, religion, nature, color and “fancy” design, and emotion. The historicism section expands on the information we were given as we entered the gallery. It begins with a gown that shows the evolution from the neoclassical “empire” style. The simple cotton muslin from 1815-20 is embroidered with leaf or “paisley” motifs and features slashing on its tiny puffed sleeves. Much more elaborate is the next pairing, an 1830s silk dress with a lower waist, voluminous puffed sleeves and a fuller skirt covered in gold bullion embroidery with large paisley motifs on the border.  Next to this gown is a parlor stove also embellished with similar fancy motifs.

Two paintings in this section underline the way Romantics used the fashions of the past. An Italian Renaissance work from 1574 shows a noblewoman wearing a robe with sleeves that have a puff at the shoulders and an open neckline edged in a standing ruffled collar, next to her portrait is the portrait of Mrs. John Bliss from around 1826. Mrs. Bliss’ dress could have been lifted by her dressmaker from the 1574 portrait. She is wearing the same style sleeve and collar.

Striking use of color and pattern were another characteristic of the Romantics.  New dyes discovered by scientists of the Industrial Revolution allowed women to decorate themselves and their interiors with layer on layer of pattern. Magazines published patterns that enabled women to make “fancy” items themselves. People consumed turkey red calico, exquisitely embroidered aprons and pelerines, made beaded bags and fanciful caps. The clothing in the section which includes two beautiful embroidered silk aprons and a beaded bag from 1833 give us an idea of how deep this love of embellishment ran.

American silk dress with gorgeous ruching, c. 1840-45 (via the New York Times)

Religion, at least the Protestant version of it, was another major influence. The Second Great Awakening sparked emotional camp meetings across the country.  Believers glorified Gothic architecture believing its arches were from the most perfect period of Christian history. The arch was also a reminder to look to the sky for the Lord’s help and was repeated over and over in the art and fashion of the day. Clothing changed again in the 1840s. The huge sleeves collapsed, the waist lowered still more, and the bodice neckline dipped to the edges of the shoulders. A fine example of the new look is a silk satin dress from the 1840s with a bodice covered in ruching and a wedding dress, pelerine, and reticule commissioned by an American missionary in Burma for her sister. The wedding dress is a sign that even the very devout loved beautiful clothing, perhaps in spite of themselves! The love of the fancy recurs in this gallery a fan edged in Gothic arches, and reticule decorated with canvas work, and a beaded watch chain amply decorated with religious symbols, the gift of a young women to her special beaux.

Closely connected to the religious fervor of the Romantics was their love of nature. There are so many examples of this in literature, the poems of Byron, Shelley, and Wordsworth, all poets who claimed their poetry came to them in a rush of divine inspiration which they wrote down without editing or revising. In the United States artists, especially those of the Hudson River School, glorified the nation’s landscape with huge panoramas of the waterways and mountains set against spacious skies. Colors were supposed to combine with nature, not stand out, like the while columns of neoclassical buildings. Clothing followed these rules too. A dress in this section is one many women of the 1840s would have owned—a silk gown in a “drab” color. The olive green color would have blended in perfectly with the surrounding landscape.

Finally, the Romantics were proud of their passionate nature. This passion could delve into sentimentality which was considered a virtue, another change from the careful calculation of the preceding Age of Reason. This was the era the white wedding dress came into vogue. Queen Victoria was married in one, of course, but the color white was a symbol of purity. So a white wedding dress would emphasize the bride’s pure state as she entered matrimony. The dresses in this section are examples from the states of a woman’s life. There is a beautiful wedding dress from 1836, a rare calico maternity dress, an equally rare nursing dress with a gather panel in the front that allowed the breast to be exposed, a housedress, and finally, a mourning dress from the mid=nineteenth century. Mourning was the ultimate expression of emotion and wearing the proper mourning garb was an important part of a woman’s life. However, the ultimate expression of sentimental love and sorrow was the proliferation of hair jewelry. There are some beautiful examples here, including a bracelet of braided hair with a miniature of a young woman with flowing blonde hair festooned with a garland of flowers and a complete set—brooch, earrings, and bracelet—with tiny “acorns” that symbolize the oak tree, considered a protection from evil.

At the end of the exhibit we are reminded that the Romantic influences return even in our technocratic age. The exhibit closes with some examples from the present day, including the Steampunk and Goth movements. There is a stunning gown by Alexander McQueen from 2007. The black velvet dress has silver beading which appears to shoot across the bodice like a bolt of jagged lightning. McQueen was fascinated with the macabre and dark side of history. This dress honors an ancestor who was executed as a witch in Salem. McQueen’s successor, Sarah Burton, used the Goth theme in 2013, with a short coat that references Renaissance priest and boots that recall Puritan fathers of the seventeenth century. One of the most interesting pieces her is a “Vampire Suit” created by Jean Paul Gaultier, but styled by the owner Richard Patrick Anderson to create his own special mood.

“How did granny details become so compelling?” Vogue magazine asked in Fall 2015 as part of feature on the resurgence of Romantic fashions. Gothic to Goth shows us that The Romantic influence never really went away, and that its aesthetic is vital enough to be reinvented by generation after generation. By showing the many strains that fed Romanticism this exhibit carves out a special place in the spring/summer exhibit season. You will think about this one for a long time.


MENadine Stewart, Exhibition Reviews

Stewart is currently an adjunct professor of Fashion Studies at Montclair State University. She has a Master’s degree in Fashion and Textile Studies from the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) and a BA in English Literature from Dickinson College. She has a longtime interest in millinery and milliners and is currently working on a social history of American milliners. She lives in New York City, right behind FIT! More posts by Nadine Stewart »

 

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CSA Western Region announces mini-Symposium and tour in Edmonton, Canada

The Costume Society of America Western Region, in conjunction with the University of Alberta, Edmonton presents the international conference: Dressing Global Bodies: Clothing Cultures, Politics and Economics in Globalizing Eras, c. 1600’s-1900s to be held July 7-9, 2016.

ec13ca1c-b605-42e2-a35a-e29581ea1b65On Sunday, July 10, 2016, following the International Conference, CSA Western Region is hosting a morning mini-symposium and an afternoon tour of the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village (transportation is included).

Although the Royal Alberta Museum is closed for renovations, attendees will get a private look at special pieces from their collection. The morning will include a special slide tour of local textile collections by guest speakers, and attendees will hear from the 2014 Jack Handford Intern about her experiences at the De Young Museum in San Francisco, and the benefits of this semi-annual award. After enjoying a box lunch attendees will depart via provided transportation to the Ukranian Culture Heritage Village, a living history museum.

Schedule:

8:45-9:15 Registration

9:15-12 Morning program at the Museum Theatre:

  • Slide tour: Highlights of the Costume Collection of the Western Canadian History program.  The collection houses over 25,000 articles of dress and domestic textiles related to life in Alberta.
  • Paper: Hutterite Samplers and Embroidered Calligraphy, Lucie Heins, assistant curator Western Canadian History.

Coffee break

  • Paper: Costume Storage: Addressing Conservation and Curatorial Interests at the de Young Collection Jack Handford Internship presentation by Christina Frank, MA.
  • Paper: An introduction to Ukrainian textiles in Alberta, Larisa Cheladyn. Slide presentation of costuming and household textiles, with some reference to religious and other unique items will be the preparation for our afternoon tour.

12 – 1:30 Catered lunch at the museum. Have your lunch in the sunny theatre lobby or outdoors in the museum’s park-like setting above the North Saskatchewan River valley.

1:30 Luxury coach to the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village, a 160-acre living history museum tracing the history of Ukrainian settlement in east central Alberta. Enjoy a one-hour tour by costume curators Joy Schellenberg and Becky Dahl. Participants will have one hour on their own at the Village before traveling back to Edmonton on the bus.

Registration and more information here.

Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village

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Fairy Tale Fashion at the Museum at FIT, a guest exhibition review

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It is with great pleasure that I present to you a guest review of Fairy Tale Fashion (on view through April 16, 2016 at the Museum at FIT in NYC) by Nadine Stewart:

We live in a post-modern age, a world in which we constantly hear about the wonders of technology, the stunning array of new sources of information, and the variety of the global marketplace. The world of fairy tales seems banished, its tales too full of old virtues and fears to be relevant to us today. And yet, we long for fantasy, for wonder, for a world of imagination in which many of the answers are hidden or obscure.

This is particularly true of the world of fashion. Though we often dream of clothes that will fulfill our dreams, the language of the fashion world often encourages us to engage with the ever shifting trends of the global marketplace. The world of dreams that fairy tales illuminate is too often discounted.

Yet the fantasy that fairy tales give us has been seeping back into the current fashion world. Perhaps it was there all the time and we simply ignored it. Fairy Tale Fashion shows how rich these influences are by linking garments and accessories to fifteen tales that range from the familiar stories of the Brothers Grimm to The Wizard of Oz, G. Frank Baum’s yarn from the beginning of the 20th century.

The idea for this exhibit had been percolating in the back of Curator Colleen Hill’s mind for some time when she saw pictures of Dolce & Gabbana’s Fall 2014 collection that used fairy tale influences extensively. Now, after researching the subject for over a year, she says she is surprised no one had explored the subject before, especially since the concept of a garment with magic powers is so central to many of the tales. Indeed, Hill feels our obsession with shoes, the accessory that has morphed into an object of dreams for many women, is one of the first examples of the onset of fairy tales in our carefully assembled uniforms for work and play.

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22734337717_8290a63fa4_zOne is reminded of the pervasiveness of fairy tales in the first gallery, whose theme is “Fashion and Story Telling.” The first garment we see is a red hood. The memories of Red Riding Hood come flooding back. One wall is full of illustrations of famous authors like Arthur Rackham and John Tenniel, artists whose work in linked forever with the stories they illuminated. Below these pictures is a case of storybooks, old and new, including and ingenious pop-up book from the 1950s that tells the story of Cinderella. The newest book re-tells the Cinderella tale with characters dressed in David Bowie costumes and a Karl Lagerfeld fairy! Across from the books hang the photographs of Kirsty Mitchell, an artist who creates her own world of dreams. Her elaborate pictures show a wonderland of beauty with swirling butterflies, fields of blue wildflowers, and women in diaphanous gowns.

But it is in the main gallery where enchantment takes effect. Exhibit designer Kim Arkert has created a special space through the use of draped translucent scrims that separate each story section. An enchanted forest is created though simple graphics of dark twisted tree branches.

Hill went back to the old versions of these stories. Many of the plots have a dark side with none of the relentless sunny optimism of Disney. This gives the curator the chance to include film clips of older movies, such as Jean Cocteau’s surreal Beauty and the Beast from 1944 and three lively versions of Cinderella, two by film pioneer Georges Melies from 1899 and 1912 and one by George Nichols made in 1911. The clips remind us that these stories have been a source of inspiration for artists over the centuries long before Walt animated them.

But, it is the clothes that tell the story. Hill has chosen a mix of garments and accessories that show influences from the 18th century to present.  Because this is not a show featuring one designer this exhibit gives us a chance to see a wide range of fashion from the 21st century that utilize stunning techniques. this is apparent in the first section which features a series of red hoods that ranges from a simple wool hooded cape from the 18th century to a version by Comme des Garcons with a huge patent leather hood and a cape of wide strips of red fabric that hang like streamers from the neck.

24404864291_aa9d5fc8c1_zFurther long,  Charles James’ Sirene and Swan gown, dresses that are iconic examples of masterful construction,  stand near a mermaid gown by Jean Louis Sajaji appears to float like seafoam with an astonishing train that bubbles up into space. In the Cinderella section two of the most interesting gowns relate to Cinderella’s life before she was transformed by her fairy godmother. The London designer Giles contributed a white evening gown with a sheer overlaid surface that appears to have been burned. It stands next to another masterpiece of distressed material, a gown by Yoshiki Hishinuma made of sheer fabric covered with film that was torn by hand and heated to crimp the material unevenly. The destruction of the material on both gowns makes them more interesting that some of the sparkling sequined dresses nearby.

In the modern fashion runway show designers strive to create a story for the creations. Thom Browne always has a such a theme. In 2014 his models paraded down the runway wearing surreal animal heads. His tweed suit with raw seams from that collection is  topped by a stunning “bear head,” a frame wrapped with tweed. It is the perfect fashion version of an enchanted fairy tale prince. Next to the “bear” is Browne’s version of “Rose Red,” a woman’s suit notable for the fabric Browne created from graduated circles of wool dripping with red lace.

Mixed in with the gowns are iconic accessories—a “glass” slipper that is actually clear acrylic spun from a 3D printer, a poison apple bag by Judith Leibner that glitters temptingly, and, of course, shoes by the current king of fantasy shoe design, Christian Louboutin. His ruby slippers, red shoes, and glass slippers sparkle with crystals, but his “Lion” stilettos in for the Beast story are the most captivating with their rhinestone claws and embroidered toes that give the effect of dainty lion’s paws.24461063546_c8143f829e_z

Not all the clothing was directly inspired by a fairy tales, but this exhibit shows us how much imagination and fantasy is at work in the world of fashion. We look to that world to recreate and re-establish ourselves. Today, even with a world full of high tech fabrics and materials, we still are drawn to the fantastic. In May, the Metropolitan Museum of Art will debut its annual exhibit from the Costume Institute. This year’s theme is fashion and technology. A look at the preview pictures shows many garments that could clothe fairy tales figures today. Fairy Tale Fashion reminds us we still hunger to re-invent ourselves in the garments of our dreams. There’s always room for a magic garment or two no matter how modern we are.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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New Fashion Encyclopedia (Vol. 3 edited by yours truly!)

 Clothing and Fashion-19935376

I’m thrilled to share that a project I have been working on since 2012 has finally come to fruition (that is three years people!). Now available, Clothing and Fashion: American Fashion from Head to Toe is a four-volume encyclopedia edited by Mary D. Doering, Patricia Hunt-Hurst, and (myself) Heather Vaughan Lee, along with General Editor,  José Blanco F.

I wrote about 10% of volume 3 (1900-1945), and served as the volume editor. I was honored to work with an amazing group of historians, curators, collection managers, writers, and friends and I sincerely thank all of them for their contributions to this project.

While I don’t expect that very many individuals will buy this book, I do hope that it is picked up by libraries and university fashion departments. If you think your library/institution/department might be interested, you can print the flyer or you can now buy it directly from Amazon (at a slightly discounted price).

2015-12-14 16.57.31 12366263_10103698058592813_2693048397538750191_nContributors to Volume 3, 1900-1945 include

Shelley Foote
Katherine Hill Winters
Melinda Webber Kerstein
Brenna Barks
Arianna Funk
Tove Hermanson
Clarissa Esquerra
Priscilla Chung
Nadine Stewart
JoAnn Stabb
Lisa Santandrea
Marcella Millio
Patricia Cunningham
Inez Brooks-Myers
Monica D. Murgia
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