Canoeing Fashion in 1903 and the United States Postal Service

At the end of March this year, the USPS made an announcement about a forthcoming stamp featuring American author Henry James (1843–1916). What you might not know is that the USPS hired me to consult on the accuracy of the fashion depicted on the stamp.

1904 Boating party (note hats and dress styles)

The stamp features a profile of the author in later life in the foreground, with a scene from his The Ambassadors (1903) in the background. It was the depiction of the two characters in a canoe that were of concern, so I focused my efforts on boating attire in and around 1903 (as the author did not provide very detailed description of their clothing). (Fascinating side note, Boston outlawed kissing in canoes in 1903)

Society in general was much more formal at this time. From what I understand of the female character, ironically named Madame de Vionnet, she was beautiful and somewhat refined.

She would have more likely been wearing a hat – a straw boater or a picture hat (especially as James included a mention of a hat). She would have been wearing wrist-length puffed sleeves, had a defined/corseted waist, and a pigeon or bloused top (yes, much more formal, even for a ride in a boat). She may have been dressed in all white, or she may have had on a dark skirt with a white blouse (aka shirt and waist). Her blouse would more than likely have been high-necked.

Note style of women’s dresses: high necked, long sleeves, bloused shirt over defined waist (also hats):

The man’s attire would also have been more formal – with a stiffened arrow collar and bow-tie, and with the addition of hat. This image of photographer Edward Steichen on his honeymoon in 1903 suggests the style I mean:

Unfortunately, I was contacted to review the stamp fairly late in the process, and so despite the information I provided, no alterations were made to the stamp (pictured below). Nonetheless, it was still an interesting excuse for research and learning more about the connection(s) between fashion and literature. (For those who want more, there is Henry James and the Art of Dress)

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Another Prince Tribute

There is no way I can write a definitive history of Prince’s Fashion a few hours after his shocking death. The scope and depth of his impact both musically and culturally, are far too great. Suffice it to say, stylistically, the man was on par with the likes of David Bowie, Freddy Mercury, or Michael Jackson (and in retrospect seems to me like a mash-up of those three). The Cut (New York Magazine’s blog) has a good slideshow of his style.

His looks were often gender-bending, and that seemed only to bolster his sex appeal. He frequently pushed the envelope – both in the way he dressed on stage and in balking corporate music control.  He frequently used ‘shock value’ in his stage style in a career that spanned four decades.

Prince in Assless Pants at the 1991 MTV VMA’s

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I’m sure in the flood of tributes to come, more memorable outfits will surface. But for my money, nothing was better than the first time I ever heard or saw him, which was in the 1984 film, Purple Rain. Below is his costume from that film, by costume designer Marie France. Following that is a performance of “Purple Rain” that just might make you cry.

Prince's Purple Rain Costume, Accession No.: 1987.124.1-5 Gift of PRN Productions. (Minnesota Historical Society)
Prince’s Purple Rain Costume, Accession No.: 1987.124.1-5 Gift of PRN Productions. (Minnesota Historical Society)

 

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CSA Western Region announces mini-Symposium and tour in Edmonton, Canada

The Costume Society of America Western Region, in conjunction with the University of Alberta, Edmonton presents the international conference: Dressing Global Bodies: Clothing Cultures, Politics and Economics in Globalizing Eras, c. 1600’s-1900s to be held July 7-9, 2016.

ec13ca1c-b605-42e2-a35a-e29581ea1b65On Sunday, July 10, 2016, following the International Conference, CSA Western Region is hosting a morning mini-symposium and an afternoon tour of the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village (transportation is included).

Although the Royal Alberta Museum is closed for renovations, attendees will get a private look at special pieces from their collection. The morning will include a special slide tour of local textile collections by guest speakers, and attendees will hear from the 2014 Jack Handford Intern about her experiences at the De Young Museum in San Francisco, and the benefits of this semi-annual award. After enjoying a box lunch attendees will depart via provided transportation to the Ukranian Culture Heritage Village, a living history museum.

Schedule:

8:45-9:15 Registration

9:15-12 Morning program at the Museum Theatre:

  • Slide tour: Highlights of the Costume Collection of the Western Canadian History program.  The collection houses over 25,000 articles of dress and domestic textiles related to life in Alberta.
  • Paper: Hutterite Samplers and Embroidered Calligraphy, Lucie Heins, assistant curator Western Canadian History.

Coffee break

  • Paper: Costume Storage: Addressing Conservation and Curatorial Interests at the de Young Collection Jack Handford Internship presentation by Christina Frank, MA.
  • Paper: An introduction to Ukrainian textiles in Alberta, Larisa Cheladyn. Slide presentation of costuming and household textiles, with some reference to religious and other unique items will be the preparation for our afternoon tour.

12 – 1:30 Catered lunch at the museum. Have your lunch in the sunny theatre lobby or outdoors in the museum’s park-like setting above the North Saskatchewan River valley.

1:30 Luxury coach to the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village, a 160-acre living history museum tracing the history of Ukrainian settlement in east central Alberta. Enjoy a one-hour tour by costume curators Joy Schellenberg and Becky Dahl. Participants will have one hour on their own at the Village before traveling back to Edmonton on the bus.

Registration and more information here.

Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village

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On my plate…er lap… Victorian Knitting History

2016-04-08 08.08.58In an effort to get blogging about the fashion history projects on my plate right now, I’m sharing this photo of an in-progress paid project, a knitting history project! It relates to Victorian Knitting, War Comforts, and continues to appear up into the 1920s, 1930s and even up through the 1950s and 1960s. Once completed it will be over 6 feet long and three feet wide (I’ve been working on it –off and on–for almost a year). I’ll reveal more (of course) once the project is completed and published.

Does the textile pattern remind you of anything?

Guesses are welcome in the comments (Unless I’ve already talked to you about it!)

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Fairy Tale Fashion at the Museum at FIT, a guest exhibition review

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It is with great pleasure that I present to you a guest review of Fairy Tale Fashion (on view through April 16, 2016 at the Museum at FIT in NYC) by Nadine Stewart:

We live in a post-modern age, a world in which we constantly hear about the wonders of technology, the stunning array of new sources of information, and the variety of the global marketplace. The world of fairy tales seems banished, its tales too full of old virtues and fears to be relevant to us today. And yet, we long for fantasy, for wonder, for a world of imagination in which many of the answers are hidden or obscure.

This is particularly true of the world of fashion. Though we often dream of clothes that will fulfill our dreams, the language of the fashion world often encourages us to engage with the ever shifting trends of the global marketplace. The world of dreams that fairy tales illuminate is too often discounted.

Yet the fantasy that fairy tales give us has been seeping back into the current fashion world. Perhaps it was there all the time and we simply ignored it. Fairy Tale Fashion shows how rich these influences are by linking garments and accessories to fifteen tales that range from the familiar stories of the Brothers Grimm to The Wizard of Oz, G. Frank Baum’s yarn from the beginning of the 20th century.

The idea for this exhibit had been percolating in the back of Curator Colleen Hill’s mind for some time when she saw pictures of Dolce & Gabbana’s Fall 2014 collection that used fairy tale influences extensively. Now, after researching the subject for over a year, she says she is surprised no one had explored the subject before, especially since the concept of a garment with magic powers is so central to many of the tales. Indeed, Hill feels our obsession with shoes, the accessory that has morphed into an object of dreams for many women, is one of the first examples of the onset of fairy tales in our carefully assembled uniforms for work and play.

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22734337717_8290a63fa4_zOne is reminded of the pervasiveness of fairy tales in the first gallery, whose theme is “Fashion and Story Telling.” The first garment we see is a red hood. The memories of Red Riding Hood come flooding back. One wall is full of illustrations of famous authors like Arthur Rackham and John Tenniel, artists whose work in linked forever with the stories they illuminated. Below these pictures is a case of storybooks, old and new, including and ingenious pop-up book from the 1950s that tells the story of Cinderella. The newest book re-tells the Cinderella tale with characters dressed in David Bowie costumes and a Karl Lagerfeld fairy! Across from the books hang the photographs of Kirsty Mitchell, an artist who creates her own world of dreams. Her elaborate pictures show a wonderland of beauty with swirling butterflies, fields of blue wildflowers, and women in diaphanous gowns.

But it is in the main gallery where enchantment takes effect. Exhibit designer Kim Arkert has created a special space through the use of draped translucent scrims that separate each story section. An enchanted forest is created though simple graphics of dark twisted tree branches.

Hill went back to the old versions of these stories. Many of the plots have a dark side with none of the relentless sunny optimism of Disney. This gives the curator the chance to include film clips of older movies, such as Jean Cocteau’s surreal Beauty and the Beast from 1944 and three lively versions of Cinderella, two by film pioneer Georges Melies from 1899 and 1912 and one by George Nichols made in 1911. The clips remind us that these stories have been a source of inspiration for artists over the centuries long before Walt animated them.

But, it is the clothes that tell the story. Hill has chosen a mix of garments and accessories that show influences from the 18th century to present.  Because this is not a show featuring one designer this exhibit gives us a chance to see a wide range of fashion from the 21st century that utilize stunning techniques. this is apparent in the first section which features a series of red hoods that ranges from a simple wool hooded cape from the 18th century to a version by Comme des Garcons with a huge patent leather hood and a cape of wide strips of red fabric that hang like streamers from the neck.

24404864291_aa9d5fc8c1_zFurther long,  Charles James’ Sirene and Swan gown, dresses that are iconic examples of masterful construction,  stand near a mermaid gown by Jean Louis Sajaji appears to float like seafoam with an astonishing train that bubbles up into space. In the Cinderella section two of the most interesting gowns relate to Cinderella’s life before she was transformed by her fairy godmother. The London designer Giles contributed a white evening gown with a sheer overlaid surface that appears to have been burned. It stands next to another masterpiece of distressed material, a gown by Yoshiki Hishinuma made of sheer fabric covered with film that was torn by hand and heated to crimp the material unevenly. The destruction of the material on both gowns makes them more interesting that some of the sparkling sequined dresses nearby.

In the modern fashion runway show designers strive to create a story for the creations. Thom Browne always has a such a theme. In 2014 his models paraded down the runway wearing surreal animal heads. His tweed suit with raw seams from that collection is  topped by a stunning “bear head,” a frame wrapped with tweed. It is the perfect fashion version of an enchanted fairy tale prince. Next to the “bear” is Browne’s version of “Rose Red,” a woman’s suit notable for the fabric Browne created from graduated circles of wool dripping with red lace.

Mixed in with the gowns are iconic accessories—a “glass” slipper that is actually clear acrylic spun from a 3D printer, a poison apple bag by Judith Leibner that glitters temptingly, and, of course, shoes by the current king of fantasy shoe design, Christian Louboutin. His ruby slippers, red shoes, and glass slippers sparkle with crystals, but his “Lion” stilettos in for the Beast story are the most captivating with their rhinestone claws and embroidered toes that give the effect of dainty lion’s paws.24461063546_c8143f829e_z

Not all the clothing was directly inspired by a fairy tales, but this exhibit shows us how much imagination and fantasy is at work in the world of fashion. We look to that world to recreate and re-establish ourselves. Today, even with a world full of high tech fabrics and materials, we still are drawn to the fantastic. In May, the Metropolitan Museum of Art will debut its annual exhibit from the Costume Institute. This year’s theme is fashion and technology. A look at the preview pictures shows many garments that could clothe fairy tales figures today. Fairy Tale Fashion reminds us we still hunger to re-invent ourselves in the garments of our dreams. There’s always room for a magic garment or two no matter how modern we are.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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New Fashion Encyclopedia (Vol. 3 edited by yours truly!)

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I’m thrilled to share that a project I have been working on since 2012 has finally come to fruition (that is three years people!). Now available, Clothing and Fashion: American Fashion from Head to Toe is a four-volume encyclopedia edited by Mary D. Doering, Patricia Hunt-Hurst, and (myself) Heather Vaughan Lee, along with General Editor,  José Blanco F.

I wrote about 10% of volume 3 (1900-1945), and served as the volume editor. I was honored to work with an amazing group of historians, curators, collection managers, writers, and friends and I sincerely thank all of them for their contributions to this project.

While I don’t expect that very many individuals will buy this book, I do hope that it is picked up by libraries and university fashion departments. If you think your library/institution/department might be interested, you can print the flyer or you can now buy it directly from Amazon (at a slightly discounted price).

2015-12-14 16.57.31 12366263_10103698058592813_2693048397538750191_nContributors to Volume 3, 1900-1945 include

Shelley Foote
Katherine Hill Winters
Melinda Webber Kerstein
Brenna Barks
Arianna Funk
Tove Hermanson
Clarissa Esquerra
Priscilla Chung
Nadine Stewart
JoAnn Stabb
Lisa Santandrea
Marcella Millio
Patricia Cunningham
Inez Brooks-Myers
Monica D. Murgia
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Fashion History for the Holidays: Fashion A Timeline in Photographs: 1850 to Today

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Recently released from Rizzoli, is a new gigantic visual reference for fashion history from expert Caroline Rennolds Milbank titled Fashion: A Timeline in Photographs: 1850 to Today (October 27, 2015). The forward from Harold Koda is overshadowed by the wealth of images: 1400 images on 320 pages. While the text is minimal, it is informative and interesting. Not your typical fashion history book, it explores a number of trends, types of clothing, and designers in not often seen images (those well versed in fashion history will present the ‘newness’ of this approach).

photoFor example, the spread on page 32 includes 10 photographs of fashions from 1867 with the text noting:

Two views of a Mrs. Bates show her seated in a black silk dress with jet embroidery and also standing dressed for an outing in a short paletot jacked and flat hat worn low on her forehead. A white cotton or linen waist with ribbon and other trimming, worn with a solid or plaid skirt makes an appearance. Christine Nilsson, the blonde and blue-eyed Swedish singing sensation, wears what is being called a suit, a fitted paletot and matching skirt in striped silk.”

The uncluttered design presents beautifully on the page, though historians may find it frustrating to have to flip back and forth to the end notes for citation information for all the photographs. Admittedly, however, the endnotes DO provide a wealth of fascinating information.

I think it would make a wonderful coffee table book – and it makes me wish I had a coffee table!

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#Fashionbooks: The History of Modern Fashion by Daniel James Cole and Nancy Deihl

Daniel James Cole and Nancy Deihl are the authors of the new book, The History of Modern Fashion (September 2015), and they were gracious enough to answer a few questions about their new publication from Laurence King, the publishing process, and their vision for the book. Nancy Deihl was my advisor in graduate school at NYU’s program in Visual Culture Costume Studies and I’m thrilled to have the opportunity to share her work. This new book covers the history of fashion from 1850-2010 and is lavishly illustrated. It’s a must have for fashion historians, students, and enthusiasts (and with the holiday’s approaching would make a great gift!)

How did the book, as a project begin, and develop? How long did it take to research, write and publish?

The publisher, Laurence King, based in London, approached the fashion design department at FIT about the possibility of a fashion history book. Daniel teaches in that department and was definitely interested in the opportunity and asked me to join him.  It took us over six years to research and write and have it brought to print.”

My assumption is that you intend it to be used as a fashion history textbook with some cross over appeal to the general market. How do you see it’s ‘place’ in the world? Especially in comparison to other fashion history survey’s out there (such as Tortora or Mendes/de la Haye)?

The History of Modern Fashion works well for textbook use. We organized the book using a decades approach, knowing that that’s how many (if not most) instructors organize the material for a course on modern fashion.  And we start with 1850 because that’s also a typical marker for a class.  The 1850s and 60s were notable in terms of developments of the designer system and also technologies, both important for laying the groundwork for 20th century fashion.

We also made sure to include subheadings, a glossary, and really explicit captions so every word is an opportunity to inform!  We feel – and the feedback we’ve gotten so far backs this up – that it fills a niche for lots of different levels of instruction.  The general public seems to be enthusiastic as well.  I spoke at an NYU alumni event last week – and as you know Steinhardt alums range from musicians to physical therapists – and there was a fantastic response to the book!”

Six hundred images is a LOT! How did the image selection/research/publication process go?

Yes, 600 images is a lot.  Images are crucial to this project so we are grateful that everyone at LK understood that.  We were very lucky that the picture editor, Heather Vickers, who has done a number of books for LK, was extremely imaginative and just wonderful to work with.  We did lots of sleuthing and had a wish list and although not every picture we wanted was traceable (or affordable) the results are extremely satisfying! And the Special Collections department at FIT was instrumental in helping with images – making many, many available to us.”

Anything in particular you’d like your fellow historians to know about this book, the process, or the research?

This was a big project.  We learned so much along the way – not just about fashion history but about research and collaboration and communication. We certainly got to know each other very well through this collaborative process.  At the beginning we were colleagues who were only slightly acquainted; by the end of the process we could finish each others’ sentences!!

One of our favorite aspects of the writing is the ‘sidebars’ that are part of each chapter – self-contained, fun (we hope!) profiles of memorable characters and fashion ‘stories.’”

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Shoemaker Chris Francis and the Body as Agent Symposium

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It was my extreme honor to be a speaker at the Body as Agent Symposium on October 10. The sold out crowd was rife with artists, historians and fashion history/art to wear enthusiasts and I couldn’t have been among a more receptive crowd. Presenters, hand-picked by curator Inez Brooks-Myers, included Melissa Leventon (historian), Ana Lisa Hedstrom (Shibori Master), and other artists such as Carol Lee Shanks, Chris Francis, emiko oye, Dolores R. Gray, and Suzanne Lacke. Of these, several stood out as ‘crowd favorites’ (as well as my own).

Hands down, the favorite and most impressive of the group was the well spoken (though quiet) Chris Francis. His amazing (and fast) trajectory as a wearable shoe artist are impressive. His private clients include many musicians such as members of Prince’s band, Journey, and others. Self-taught, his (completely wearable) shoes are entirely handmade and reference major artists, art movements, literature, music and others.

These included Dali, Picasso, The Bauhaus, Russian Constructivism, Cubism, Dadaism, Tramp Art, Punk Music, Devo, Salvatore Ferragamo, You Can’t Win by Jack Black, and other contemporary and historical culture issues. His materials (and inspirations) are often ‘found’ objects, or inspired by his current city of Los Angeles, as well as his steel working hometown in Indiana. His background includes carpentry and “building” as he put it, with a love of mechanics. He is also a sometime painter, and has sometimes used that medium as a ‘jumping off’ point for his creations.

Opium den shoes inspired by “You Can’t Win’ by Jack Black, by Chris Francis. At the symposium, he noted that these shoes could have been worn while others ‘smoked’ the opium pipe ‘and looked up’.

These included Dali, Picasso, The Bauhaus, Russian Constructivism, Cubism, Dadaism, Tramp Art, Punk Music, Devo, Salvatore Ferragamo, You Can’t Win by Jack Black, and other contemporary and historical culture issues. His materials (and inspirations) are often ‘found’ objects, or inspired by his current city of Los Angeles, as well as his steel working hometown in Indiana. His background includes carpentry and “building” as he put it, with a love of mechanics. He is also a sometime painter, and has sometimes used that medium as a ‘jumping off’ point for his creations.

Some of his shoes have architectural references, and he has toyed with including mechanical elements to the shoes (though this makes them slightly less wearable, and a little more dangerous). He is a self-identified former ‘punk’ who taught himself design and pattern making by reading and buying textbooks from a design schools curriculum (he didn’t name which school). His punk shoes included a stiff mohawk made from old broom, and actual material (flyers?) from the walls of the old CBGBs in New York.

Chris Francis, 2015. Photo by Noel Bass, courtesy of Craft & Folk Art Museum. CF: ” I’m actually trying to mimic the motions of machines rather than making shoes that just resemble a machine; I want to actually get to the motion because I love industrial design.” This pair of shoes also references his own painting, which strongly referenced cubism.

Of his Devo boots (the main image used to promote the current exhibition, the opening image here), he explained that he often sees colors and/or shapes while he’s listening to music (I believe, this is called synesthesia) and had been listening to “lots and lots” of Devo, and appreciating its mechanized sound, correlated the design to the music. I can’t wait to watch as is career and the world continues to inspire his work. His work has humor, thoughtfulness, and interesting references. All of which makes his work entertaining and aesthetically pleasing. It reminds me of the work of Gaza Bowen (especially her sculptural shoes), though I can’t quite put my finger on the ‘how’ of that feeling.

The exhibition, Body as Agent, is on view through in Richmond, CA through November 15. Chris Francis had a solo show at the Craft and Folk Art Museum in Los Angeles that closed September 6, but additional information and images are still available online. You can hear an audio review of that show via KCRW’s design show DNA.

 

 

Salvatore Ferragamo’s 1939 wedge, the inspiration for Chris Francis’ version.
Inspired by asking himself the question “What if Ferragamo were in the studio and collaborated with me on a shoe?” by Chris Francis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Chris Francis’ boots, inspired by Devo on view at Body as Agent in Richmond, CA

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